Scanning Metal Oxide Electroplating Equipment
for Substrates with Surface Conductivity


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MOXIE-S is a first of its kind electrochemical deposition tool designed for application of metal oxide coatings on substrates with surface electrical conductivity including but not limited to n or p+ type silicon wafers, metals such as nickel, silver, copper etc. as well as dielectric substrates with conductive surface coatings such as ITO, FTO or metal coated glass or polymer, polymers with conductive surface etc).

MOXIE-S can be used for deposition of a wide variety of metal oxide coatings including but not limited to ZnO, Al2O3, In2O3, CdO, Y2O3, WO3, ZrO2, and SnO2.

MOXIE-S is designed for in-line sample processing with maximum sample width of 30cm and is perfectly suited for laboratory level deposition of metal oxide coatings on both rigid as well as flexible substrates.

MOXIE-S is further unique in its ability to deposit metal oxide coatings on a single side of the substrate without any masking.


MOXIE-S can be effectively used as an R&D metal oxide deposition tool in a wide variety of technology development and research applications including but not limited to the following:

  • Index matching films for improved transmission
  • Anti-reflective optically transparent coating with adjustable values of reflection and refractive index
  • Planarization of coated surface, roughness reduction of conductive surface
  • Surface passivation coatings for semiconductor devices
  • Optical Masking of patterned integrated circuits with required index matching values
  • Enabling new device architectures
  • In-line coating
  • Suitable for “cathodic” electrochromic oxides deposition including W, Mo, Ti or Nb oxide films as well as “anodic” electrochromic oxides deposition including Ni or Ir oxides with increased coloration efficiency
  • Development and testing of new materials with advanced conductive, dielectric, electrochromic and other properties


MOXIE-S has a number of unique features including the following:

  • Capable of depositing metal oxide films on a wide variety of substrates without any substantial adjustments to the equipment hardware.
  • Single side deposition without masking
  • All parameters of coating process are adjustable including deposition process temperature, time and chemistry
  • Deposited film thickness can be easily adjusted with +/- 2% uniformity over a wide range up to 200nm and greater
  • Deposition process can be adjusted to provide for desired levels of porosity and refractive index of metal oxide coatings
  • Substrate dimensions up to 30cmx30cm
  • Compatible with both Organic or Aqueous electrolytes
  • Applicable for deposition of a wide range of metal oxide films including ZnO, Al2O3, In2O3, CdO, Y2O3, WO3, ZrO2, SnO2
  • “Liquid only” electrical contact to deposition surface for complete coating coverage
  • Galvanostatic process with a wide range of operating electrical currents tunable to your specific electrolyte and metal oxide system (0.5mA/cm2 up to 1A/cm2) Note: specific current range subject to power supply used.
  • Linear substrate speed when passing through MOXIE-S deposition window can be as high as 100cm per minute


MOXIE-S is a direct replacement of a more traditional PVD, CVD, PECVD and/or APCVD-based approach to metal oxide film deposition. As a PVD replacement MOXIE-S offers a number of advantages:

  • MOXIE-S is an atmospheric pressure deposition tool. As a result MOXIE-S is a lot simpler, cheaper and easier to both install and operate
  • MOXIE-S deposition process takes place at ambient temperature and results in deposition of metal oxide films with crystalline structure. As a result MOXIE-S does not generally require post-deposition high temperature annealing and is well suited for processing of temperature sensitive substrates.
  • MOXIE-S utilizes wet pre-clean process for incoming substrates. This process does NOT result in any damage to the substrate surface prior to deposition.
  • MOXIE-S utilizes over 98% of deposition materials is capable of deposition chemistry changes without any equipment adjustments or downtime.
  • MOXIE-S has very low power consumption that is as low as 0.05-0.07Wh/substrate in case of deposition on silicon wafers.


Key benefits of using MOXIE-S as a part of laboratory research include:

  • Accelerated technology development cycle due to simple, flexible and low cost approach to metal oxide deposition offered by MOXIE-S R&D equipment
  • Ability to deposit metal oxide coatings on a single side of a substrate without substrate masking and subsequent mask removal
  • Low deposition process temperature broadens the universe of substrate materials as well as simplifies integration with low temperature earlier processing steps
  • Lack of substrate damage during the wet pre-clean process enables higher level optical properties